History 0ur Pasts : Class 8th
- History is the study of past events, particularly human events and their consequences, which have been recorded and preserved over time.
It is an interdisciplinary field that involves the investigation, analysis, and interpretation of the past, using various sources such as written documents, archaeological artifacts, and oral traditions. “Our Pasts” refers to the collective histories of different peoples and civilizations. It encompasses the diverse experiences and perspectives of various groups and individuals, including their social, cultural, economic, and political contexts. It also explores the interactions and relationships between different societies and cultures, and how they have evolved over time.
Lesson No 1 : How , When and Where
The solutions for Chapter 1of How, When and Where are given below. Students should also check NCERT Solutions for Class 8 for other subjects.
1. State whether true or false:
(a) James Mill divided Indian history into three periods – Hindu, Muslim, Christian.
(b) Official documents help us understand what the people of the country think.
(c) The British thought surveys were important for effective administration.
2. What is the problem with the periodization of Indian history that James Mill offers?
Answer:- The British’s dominance over Hindus and Muslims is the issue with James Mill’s periodization of Indian history.
3. Why did the British preserve official documents?
Answer:- The British kept formal records because they believed that by writing and recording everything, it would be simpler for them to study and discuss it in the future.
4. How will the information historians get from old newspapers be different from that found in police reports?
Answer:-Old newspapers and police reports can provide historians with completely different types of information. A historian typically gathers data from many different sources, including both official and unofficial records. The police report is written from a procedural perspective, so the kinds of information we can learn from them are frequently limited.
Chapter 2 – From Trade to Territory The Company Establishes Power
The solutions for Chapter 2 of ‘Our Pasts-III’ are given below. Students should also check NCERT Solutions for Class 8 for other subjects.
1. Match the following:
|“Tiger of Mysore”||Right to collect land revenue|
|Rani Channamma||Criminal Court|
|Sipahi||Led an anti-British movement in Kitoor|
|Diwani||Right to collect land revenue|
|“Tiger of Mysore”||Tipu Sultan|
|Faujdari Adalat||Criminal Court|
|Rani Channamma||Led an anti-British movement in Kitoor|
2. Fill in the blanks:
(a) The British conquest of Bengal began with the Battle of ___________.
(b) Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan were the rulers of ___________.
(c) Dalhousie implemented the Doctrine of ___________.
(d) Maratha kingdoms were located mainly in the ___________ part of India.
(a) The British conquest of Bengal began with the Battle of Plassey
(b) Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan were the rulers of Mysore.
(c) Dalhousie implemented the Doctrine of Lapse
(d) Maratha kingdoms were located mainly in the South-western part of India.
3. State whether true or false:
(a) The Mughal empire became stronger in the eighteenth century.
(b) The English East India Company was the only European company that traded with India.
(c) Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the ruler of Punjab.
(d) The British did not introduce administrative changes in the territories they conquered.
(a) The Mughal empire became stronger in the eighteenth century – False
(b) The English East India Company was the only European company that traded with India – False
(c) Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the ruler of Punjab – True
(d) The British did not introduce administrative changes in the territories they conquered – False
4. What attracted European trading companies to India?
Answer:- India’s high-quality cotton and silk products found a sizable market in Europe. Additionally, spices like cinnamon, cardamom, pepper, and cloves were in high demand. These were the factors luring Foreign trading firms to India.
5. What were the areas of conflict between the Bengal nawabs and the East India Company?
Conflicts between the Bengal nawabs and the East India Company were brought on by:
a. Nawabs routinely refused to grant favours to the East India Company
b. Nawabs also requested high honour payments from the business.
c. The business disputed paying taxes.
d. Company representatives insulted the nawabs in correspondence.
6. How did the assumption of Diwani benefit the East India Company?
Answer.The East India Company benefited from diwani privileges in a number of ways:
a. It let the company to utilise Bengal’s substantial revenue resources.
c. The East India Company’s trading monopoly was established
c. Bengal Revenue was utilised to export products from India outside of the country.
7. Explain the system of “subsidiary alliance”.
Answer. The East India Company’s protection forced the rulers of India to give up control of their armed forces as a result of the subsidiary alliance structure. The introduction of this system brought about the following modifications:
The East India Company assumed guardianship over the areas it acquired through the alliance.
b. To keep an eye on the monarch in the region, an English resident who worked as the EIC’s personnel was appointed.
8. In what way was the administration of the Company different from that of Indian rulers?
Answer.The following list outlines how the company’s administration differs from that of the Indian kings:
Company Management Administrators of Indian Rulers
1.The business assigned presidencies to the regions. 1.The areas were divided into districts, parganas, tehsils, and parishads by Indian kings.
2.The executive branch was headed by the governor. 2.For their units, Zamindar or Peasants were accountable.
3.The head of state was the Governor-General. 3. The king or nawab presided as ruler.
9. Describe the changes that occurred in the composition of the Company’s army.
Answer. The dominance of infantry over horse and the introduction of muskets and matchlocks to protect them marked the biggest change in the EIC army. The business also established a unified military culture in which personnel received training in Europe through drills and other activities.
Chapter NO 3 Ruling the Countryside
The solutions for Chapter 3 of Our Pasts-III are given below. Students should also check NCERT Solutions for Class 8 for other subjects.
1. Match the following.
|Nij||Cultivation on ryot’s lands|
|Ryoti||Cultivation on planter’s own land|
|Nij||Cultivation on planter’s own land|
|Ryoti||Cultivation on ryot’s land|
2. Fill in the blanks.
(a) Growers of woad in Europe saw __________ as a crop which would provide competition to their earnings.
(b) The demand for indigo increased in late eighteenth-century Britain because of __________.
(c) The international demand for indigo was affected by the discovery of __________.
(d) The Champaran movement was against __________.
(a) Growers of woad in Europe saw indigo as a crop which would provide competition to their earnings.
(b) The demand for indigo increased in late eighteenth-century Britain because of the expansion of cotton production.
(c) The international demand for indigo was affected by the discovery of synthetic dyes.
(d) The Champaran movement was against indigo planters.
3. Describe the main features of the Permanent Settlement.
Answer.The Permanent Settlement system’s primary characteristics are:
a. The zamindars’ payment to the business was set in stone.
c. The Rajas were promoted to zamindar status.
c. When zamindars neglected to pay the business, they lost their claim to the lands.
4. How was the Mahalwari System different from the Permanent Settlement?
Answer. Differences between Mahalwari System and Permanent Settlement are given below.
Differences between Mahalwari System and Permanent Settlement are given below.
|Mahalwari System||Permanent Settlement|
|Holt Mackenzie devised it, and it came into effect in 1822||Permanent Settlement was brought by Lord Cornwallis in 1793|
|The epicentre of the system was a village||There was no such epicentre|
|The revenue was to be revised periodically||Revenue was fixed|
5. Give two problems which arose with the new Munro system of fixing revenue.
Answer. Two issues were raised by the new Munro revenue-fixing system:
a. The revenue demand was fixed way too high for peasants to pay.
b. Villages were abandoned as a result of peasants’ inability to pay rent.
6. Why were ryots reluctant to grow indigo?
Answer. The ryots were apprehensive about growing indigo:
A. They received relatively little money for it.
b. The indigo plantation never brought in any money for the Ryot family.
c. The planters asked the Ryots to cultivate indigo on the fertile areas of their land, which alarmed them.
7. What were the circumstances which led to the eventual collapse of indigo production in Bengal?
Answer. The following events led to the fall of indigo production in Bengal:
a. Ryots’ disputed that it was still making indigo.
b. Peasants and ryots began protesting with the zamindars’ assistance.
c. Planters ultimately left the city.
Chapter 4 – Tribals, Dikus and the Vision of a Golden Age
The solutions for Chapter 4 of Our Pasts-III are given below. Students should also check NCERT Solutions for Class 8 for other subjects.
1. Fill in the blanks:
(a) The British described the tribal people as ____________.
(b) The method of sowing seeds in jhum cultivation is known as ____________.
(c) The tribal chiefs got ____________ titles in central India under the British land settlements.
(d) Tribals went to work in the ____________ of Assam and the ____________ in Bihar.
(a) The British described the tribal people as wild and savage.
(b) The method of sowing seeds in jhum cultivation is known as broadcasting.
(c) The tribal chiefs got land titles in central India under the British land settlements.
(d) Tribals went to work in the tea plantations of Assam and the coal mines in Bihar.
2. State whether true or false:
(a) Jhum cultivators plough the land and sow seeds.
(b) Cocoons were bought from the Santhals and sold by the traders at five times the purchase price.
(c) Birsa urged his followers to purify themselves, give up drinking liquor and stop believing in witchcraft and sorcery.
(d) The British wanted to preserve the tribal way of life.
(a) Jhum cultivators plough the land and sow seeds – False
(b) Cocoons were bought from the Santhals and sold by the traders at five times the purchase price – True
(c) Birsa urged his followers to purify themselves, give up drinking liquor and stop believing in witchcraft and sorcery – True
(d) The British wanted to preserve the tribal way of life – False
3. What problems did shifting cultivators face under British rule?
Answer. The British desired the conversion of the shifting cultivators into peasant cultivators. The British believed that controlling and managing peasant cultivators was simpler than managing moving cultivators. As a result, when the corporation planned the land revenue system, changing cultivators encountered issues.
4. How did the powers of tribal chiefs change under colonial rule?
Answer. The roles and authority of the tribal chiefs significantly evolved. They were permitted to retain their property titles over a number of villages and to rent out additional land, but they lost a great deal of administrative control and were required to abide by regulations created by British officials in India.
5. What accounts for the anger of the tribals against the dikus?
Answer. The dikus, who were viewed by the tribes as “outsiders,” did not make the tribes happy. The tribal people preferred shifting cultivation to peasant cultivation. The dikus were encroaching on the tribal members’ grounds and urging them to sell or rent their property at exorbitant interest rates. The tribals were upset about this.
6. What was Birsa’s vision of a golden age? Why do you think such a vision appealed to the people of the region?
In Birsa’s ideal world, the dikus would be eradicated from their territory. The “age of truth,” in his opinion, was that time period. The tribe sirdars would be able to govern themselves in the golden era, according to Birsa, and no one will be around to impose rules on them. His idea of a golden period included an absence of vices like alcohol, witchcraft, sorcery, and uncleanliness.
History Chapter 5 – When People Rebel – 1857 and After
The solutions for Chapter 5 of Our Pasts-III are given below. Students should also check NCERT Solutions for Class 8 for other subjects.
1. What was the demand of Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi that was refused by the British?
Answer. The goal of Rani Lakshmibai was for her adopted son to rule Jhansi. The kingdom would instead be acquired by the British under Lord Dalhousie’s Theory of Lapse, which prohibited an adopted heir from inheriting the kingdom after the death of the father.
2. What did the British do to protect the interests of those who converted to Christianity?
Answer. A new law was passed in 1850 to facilitate Christian conversion. This legislation permitted an Indian who had become a Christian to inherit his ancestors’ property.
3. What objections did the sepoys have to the new cartridges that they were asked to use?
Answer.The Indian sepoys disapproved of the new cartridges because they thought that pig and cow fat had been used to coat them. To load the cartridges, the sepoys had to bite them. Yet, their beliefs forbade them from even touching these cartridges.
4. How did the last Mughal emperor live the last years of his life?
Answer. Bahadur Shah Zafar served as the final Mughal emperor. His title as the Mughal emperor was a symbolic one. Zafar served as the 1857 uprising’s symbolic leader as well. The British blinded him and imprisoned him. He and his wife were transported to Rangoon later in 1858, where he passed away in 1862.
5. What could be the reasons for the confidence of the British rulers about their position in India before May 1857?
Answer. The following factors contributed to the British gaining confidence in their position in India:
a. After Aurangzeb’s demise, the Mughal emperors were not powerful or strong. As a result, the Brits found it simpler to annex states.
b. The division between the nawabs and the Mughal emperors enabled the British to establish a firm grip over Indian society, beginning in Bengal.
c. The British established their rule over Indian society after crushing the 1857 uprising.
6. What impact did Bahadur Shah Zafar’s support for the rebellion have on the people and the ruling families?
Answer. To oppose the British, Bahadur Shah Zafar urged all the leaders to unite into a confederacy. Once Bahadur Shah Zafar pledged his support for the revolution, several petty and big countries, monarchs, and chieftains did as well. His backing of the uprising consequently had a significant impact on the populace and the governing families.
7. How did the British succeed in securing the submission of the rebel landowners of Awadh?
To put down the rebel landowners of Awadh, the British adopted a two-pronged strategy. These are what they are:
a. The rebel landowners who had killed British soldiers in an effort to intimidate the Awadh population were first hanged.
b. The second strategy was rewarding Awadh’s obedient landowners.
8. In what ways did the British change their policies as a result of the rebellion of 1857?
Answer. The Crown received the East India Company’s authority. There were the following modifications:
a. Abolition of the Theory of Lapse policy
b. The number of Indian sepoys in the army was decreased so that they would not be able to rebel against the British in the future.
c. Landowners’ and zamindars’ rights were strengthened even more
d. The Crown pledged not to meddle with the public’s practise of religion.
Chapter 6 – Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners
The solutions for Chapter 6 of Our Pasts-III are given below. Students should also check NCERT Solutions for Class 8 for other subjects.
1. What kinds of cloth had a large market in Europe?
Answer. Europe had a big market for cotton and silk. Indian textiles of various types were offered for sale in European marketplaces.
- Cossaes or Khasa
2. What is jamdani?
Answer. Jamdani is a fine muslin on which decorative motifs are woven on the loom, typically in grey and white. Often a mixture of cotton and gold thread was used, as in the cloth in the picture.
3. What is a bandanna?
Answer. Bandannas are brightly coloured and printed scarf for the neck or head. Originally, the term derived from the word “bandhna”.
4. Who are the Agaria?
A group of men and women who formed a community of iron smelters is known as Agaria.
5. Fill in the blanks.
(a) The word chintz comes from the word _________.
(b) Tipu’s sword was made of_________ steel.
(c) India’s textile exports declined in the _________ century.
(a) The word chintz comes from the word chhint.
(b) Tipu’s sword was made of wootz steel.
(c) India’s textile exports declined in the nineteenth century.
6. How do the names of different textiles tell us about their histories?
The names of the various textiles, such as “muslin,” “chintz,” “calico,” and “bandanna,” all have a backstory.
a. Muslin – The fabric was given its name, Muslin, by European traders who observed five different varieties of cotton textiles being carried by Arab traders in Mosul. After it, they gave the term “muslin” to all woven fabrics.
b. Chintz – Its name comes from the Hindi word “Chhint,” which refers to a tiny piece of fabric with floral patterns.
c. Calicut – In search of spices, the Portuguese arrived in Calicut first. Calico, on the other hand, was the name of the cotton fabric they brought back from Calicut to Spain.
d. Bandanna: The word “bandanna” is derived from the Hindi word “bandhna”. It is a scarf created for the head or neck that has patterns on it.
7. Why did the wool and silk producers in England protest against the import of Indian textiles in the early eighteenth century?
Answer. They were unable to compete with Indian textiles because of their popularity in European markets, due to their designs, and due to their high pricing.
8. How did the development of cotton industries in Britain affect textile producers in India?
Answer. There were various difficulties for Indian textile manufacturers:
a. In both England and India, they had to compete with English cotton industries.
b. As British cotton production increased, Indian textile manufacturers shrank.
9. Why did the Indian iron smelting industry decline in the nineteenth century?
Answer. The iron smelting business declined in the nineteenth century for the reasons listed below:
a. Due to the forest rules that were imposed on them, Indian smelters were unable to obtain charcoal.
b. The forest authorities demanded substantial taxes from iron smelters.
c. Several famines ruined the dry tracts for iron smelters in the late nineteenth century.
d. Local iron smelters faced the most difficulty in the iron industries since they were unable to compete with the large enterprises.
10. What problems did the Indian textile industry face in the early years of its development?
Answer.The issues that the Indian textile industry is currently facing are listed below.
a. Competition – They had to contend with established, sizable British enterprises.
b. Export – Because of the exorbitant export prices, it was difficult for them to export to England.
c. No Buyers – Bengal weavers were the hardest hurt when Europeans stopped patronising and purchasing from them.
11. What helped TISCO expand steel production during the First World War?
Answer. The causes for TISCO’s expansion are as follows:
a. The production of ammunition during World War I required a significant amount of iron and steel, which Britain had to supply.
c. In order to supply iron and steel, Indian markets turned to TISCO for rail work.
c. TISCO produced carriage wheels and munitions for World War I.
Chapter 7 – Civilising the “Native”, Educating the Nation
The solutions for Chapter 7 of Our Pasts – III are given below. Students should also check NCERT Solutions for Class 8 for other subjects.
1. Match the following:
|William Jones||Promotion of English education|
|Rabindranath Tagore||Respect for ancient cultures|
|Mahatma Gandhi||Learning in a natural environment|
|Pathshalas||Critical of English education|
|William Jones||Respect for ancient cultures|
|Rabindranath Tagore||Learning in a natural environment|
|Thomas Macaulay||Promotion of English education|
|Mahatma Gandhi||Critical of English education|
2. State whether true or false:
(a) James Mill was a severe critic of the Orientalists.
(b) The 1854 despatch on education was in favour of English being introduced as a medium of higher education in India.
(c) Mahatma Gandhi thought that the promotion of literacy was the most important aim of education.
(d) Rabindranath Tagore felt that children ought to be subjected to strict discipline.
3. Why did William Jones feel the need to study Indian history, philosophy and law?
Answer. It was vital to learn about the sacred and legal literature written during the ancient era in order to comprehend India. The true beliefs and laws of the Hindus and Muslims could only be revealed by those writings. William Jones believed that only a new study of these texts could form the basis of future development in India.
4. Why did James Mill and Thomas Macaulay think that European education was essential in India?
Answer. According to James Mill and Thomas Macaulay, knowing English would enable Indians to study some of the best works of literature ever written and would make them aware of advancements in Western science and philosophy. Hence, teaching English could be a means of “civilising” individuals by modifying their preferences, morals, and cultural norms.
5. Why did Mahatma Gandhi want to teach children handicrafts?
Answer. According to Mahatma Gandhi, literacy is neither the start nor the finish of education. He believed that literacy was just one method of educating both men and women. Hence, he believed that the child’s education should start with the teaching of practical handicrafts and should provide them the opportunity to make something as soon as they start training.
6. Why did Mahatma Gandhi think that English education had enslaved Indians?
Answer. According to Mahatma Gandhi, colonial schooling gave Indians a false sense of inferiority. It diminished their pride in their own culture and caused them to view Western civilization as superior. Gandhi believed that English education was wicked, poisonous, and that it subjugated and possessed Indians.
Chapter 8 – Women, Caste and Reform
The solutions for Chapter 8 of Our Pasts-III are given below. Students should also check NCERT Solutions for Class 8 for other subjects.
1. What social ideas did the following people support?
a. Rammohun Roy
b. Dayanand Saraswati
c. Veerasalingam Pantulu
d. Jyotirao Phule
e. Pandita Ramabai
g. Mumtaz Ali
h. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
a. Rammohun Roy – Ban of Sati
b. Dayanand Saraswati – Widow Remarriage
c. Veerasalingam Pantulu – Widow Remarriage
d. Jyotirao Phule – Equality amongst castes
e. Pandita Ramabai – Women’s education
e. Periyar – Equality to untouchables
f. Mumtaz Ali – Women’s education
g. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar – Widow remarriage
2. State whether true or false:
(a) When the British captured Bengal they framed many new laws to regulate the rules regarding marriage, adoption, the inheritance of property, etc.
(b) Social reformers had to discard the ancient texts in order to argue for reform in social practices.
(c) Reformers got full support from all sections of the people of the country.
(d) The Child Marriage Restraint Act was passed in 1829.
3. How did the knowledge of ancient texts help the reformers promote new laws?
Answer. With his publications, Ram Mohan Roy attempted to demonstrate that the ancient texts did not support the practise of burning widows. Other reformers followed Ram Mohan Roy’s lead and employed the same tactic. They searched the ancient sacred scriptures for a verse or sentence that supported their position if they wanted to object to a practise that sounded damaging.
4. What were the different reasons people had for not sending girls to school?
Answer. For the reasons listed below, parents choose not to enrol their daughters in school:
a. They feared that schools would separate girls from their families.
b. They won’t be able to perform their household chores because of school.
c. To get to school, girls had to pass through crowded areas.
5. Why were Christian missionaries attacked by many people in the country? Would some people have supported them too? If so, for what reasons?
Answer. They attacked the Christian missionaries because they were involved in converting poor and tribal people to Christianity, or in other words, converting a Hindu to Christianity.
6. In the British period, what new opportunities opened up for people who came from castes that were regarded as “low”?
Answer. Many of the low caste poor from rural areas and small towns were migrating to urban areas where there was a new need for labour. Low caste and the impoverished saw this as a chance to escape the repressive control higher caste landlords had over their lives and the everyday humiliation they endured.
7. How did Jyotirao, the reformer, justify his criticism of caste inequality in society?
Answer. The anti-caste activist Jyotirao Phule held the view that because members of the upper castes were ‘Aryans,’ they were not the original residents of their territories. He expressed his views by claiming that the Aryans were intruders and that the lower caste people had always owned the land.
8. Why did Phule dedicate his book Gulamgiri to the American movement to free slaves?
Answer. Phule made a connection between the plight of the “lower” castes in India and that of the black slaves in America by dedicating his book to all the Americans who had battled for the freedom of slaves.
9. What did Ambedkar want to achieve through the temple entry movement?
Answer. Ambedkar organised a temple admission drive in 1927, and members of the Mahar caste took part. As the Dalits utilised the temple tank’s water, Brahman priests became furious. He wanted everyone to understand the influence caste stereotypes have in society.
10. Why were Jyoti Rao Phule and Ramaswamy Naicker critical of the national movement? Did their criticism help the national struggle in any way?
Answer. Both Jyoti Rao Phule and Ramaswamy Naicker were critical of the national movement because they believed that anti-colonialists and colonialists had little in common.
Naicker belonged to the Congress party, and his experiences made him think that casteism was still present in the party.
Their criticism strengthened the civil rights movement. To eliminate the distinctions between the upper and lower castes, reformists began to restructure their thinking.
Chapter 9 – The Making of the National Movement: 1870s–1947
The solutions for Chapter 9 of Our Pasts-III are given below. Students should also check NCERT Solutions for Class 8 for other subjects.
1. Why were people dissatisfied with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s?
Answer.For the following reasons, people were unhappy with British rule:
a. The British were in charge of managing India’s resources
b. India could not be for Indians until British attempts to control its people’s lives were abandoned.
c. The Arms Act, which forbade Indians from owning weapons, was enacted in 1878.
2. Who did the Indian National Congress wish to speak for?
Answer. The representatives of all the various communities in India made up the Congress, not just those from any one class or group. The party sought to represent the common people in the struggle for freedom as a result.
3. What economic impact did the First World War have on India?
Answer. The Government of India’s defence spending significantly increased as a result of the First World War. In response, the government raised taxes on corporate profits as well as personal income. Price increases caused by increased military spending and the demand for war supplies put a huge strain on the average person.
4. What did the Muslim League resolution of 1940 ask for?
Answer. The Muslim League had proposed a resolution in 1940 calling for “Independent States” for Muslims in the nation’s northeast and east. Pakistan or the split were not mentioned in the resolution.
5. Who were the Moderates? How did they propose to struggle against British rule?
Answer. Early nationalists, particularly a group of political leaders active in India between 1885 and 1907, were known as moderates. They printed newspapers, produced articles, and demonstrated how British rule was causing the nation’s economic collapse. In their lectures, they criticized British control, and they dispatched delegates to various regions of the nation to enlist public support.
6. How was the politics of the Radicals within the Congress different from that of the Moderates?
Answer. The radicals promoted widespread mobilization and a boycott of British institutions and products in the struggle for swaraj. On the other hand, moderates preferred to adhere to the British-imposed laws, regulations, and order. They adhered to the “praying practice” that the radicals vehemently rejected.
7. Discuss the various forms that the Non-Cooperation Movement took in different parts of India. How did people understand Gandhiji?
Answer. Many regions of the country exhibited a variety of responses, a s outlined below:
a. Patidar peasants in Gujarat’s Kheda organised peaceful campaigns against the British government’s exorbitant demand for land revenue.
b. Liquor stores were picketed in Tamil Nadu’s interior and coastal Andhra.
c. Muslim merchants and peasants in Sind (now in Pakistan) were fervent supporters of the Khilafat call.
Gandhiji was viewed by the public as a sort of savior who could alleviate their suffering and poverty.
8. Why did Gandhiji choose to break the salt law?
Answer. The Salt March united the rich and the poor by connecting the universal yearning for freedom to a particular grievance that was shared by everyone. Gandhiji thereupon announced in 1930 that he would lead a march to violate the salt prohibition.
9. Discuss those developments of the 1937-47 period that led to the creation of Pakistan.
Answer. The following list outlines the events from 1937 to 1947 that contributed to the founding of Pakistan:
The Muslim League did not initially refer to Pakistan as the nation of Muslims, but starting in the 1930s, it began calling for a distinct nation for Muslims.
b. The 1937 provincial elections were a key role in the Muslim League’s decision that Muslims in India are a minority and want a separate nation to ensure fair representation in politics.
c. Mass agitation – The Muslim League led the mass movement after the cabinet mission of 1946 failed.
d. Pakistan was created when partition was completed.
Class 8 History Chapter 10 – India after Independence
The solutions for Chapter 10 of Our Pasts-III are given below. Students should also check NCERT Solutions for Class 8 for other subjects.
1. Name three problems that the newly independent nation of India faced.
Answer. India experienced a number of difficulties after becoming independent in August 1947:
a. A total of 8 million refugees from what is now Pakistan had entered the nation. These people needed to find housing and employment.
b. The challenge of convincing the over 500 princely states, each ruled by a Maharaja or a Nawab, to join the new country.
c. The issues the refugees and princely states were facing needed to be resolved right away.
2. What was the role of the Planning Commission?
Answer. A Planning Commission was established by the government in 1950 to assist in developing and implementing effective economic development plans.
3. Fill in the blanks.
(a) Subjects that were placed on the Union List were _________, _________ and _________.
(b) Subjects on the Concurrent List were _________ and _________.
(c) Economic planning by which both the state and the private sector played a role in development was called a _________ _________ model.
(d) The death of _________ sparked off such violent protests that the government was forced to give in to the demand for the linguistic state of Andhra.
(a) Subjects that were placed on the Union List were taxes, defence and foreign affairs.
(b) Subjects on the Concurrent List were forest and agriculture.
(c) Economic planning by which both the state and the private sector played a role in developing what was called a mixed economy model.
(d) The death of Potti Sriramulu sparked off such violent protests that the government was forced to give in to the demand for the linguistic state of Andhra.
4. State whether true or false.
(a) At independence, the majority of Indians lived in villages.
(b) The Constituent Assembly was made up of members of the Congress party.
(c) In the first national election, only men were allowed to vote.
(d) The Second Five Year Plan focused on the development of the heavy industry.
5. What did Dr. Ambedkar mean when he said that “In politics, we will have equality, and in social and economic life, we will have inequality”?
Answer. According to Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, economic and social democracy should come after political democracy. He intended to end inequality in the social and economic sectors of life when he spoke the aforementioned statements. He wished to eliminate all forms of caste or wealth-based prejudice.
6. After independence, why was there a reluctance to divide the country on linguistic lines?
Answer. Nehru noted that “disruptionist impulses had risen to the fore” following the Partition. The country needed to be strong and united in order to stop them. India had already been split along religious lines; despite Mahatma Gandhi’s hopes and efforts, only two countries had achieved freedom.
7. Give one reason why English continued to be used in India after Independence.
Answer. People who couldn’t speak Hindi held a different viewpoint. T.T. Krishnamachari delivered a speech to the assembly in which he issued “A warning on behalf of the people of the South,” some of whom threatened to leave India if Hindi was forced upon them. Finally, a compromise was reached; English would be utilized in judicial proceedings, government operations, and interstate communications.
8. How was the economic development of India visualised in the early decades after independence?
Answer. The rise of the economy has greatly benefited some areas of India and particular Indian tribes. Many people continue to live in poverty at the same time. They are unable to pay for their children to attend school because they are housed in urban slums or are residing in remote villages on small-yielding properties.
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Muscle system : A Complex Network 0f Tissues
Pancreas : An Essential 0rgan located in the Abdomen